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Brazil

Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by list of countries and outlying territories by total area and list of countries by population. It is the largest Lusophone country in the world, and the only one in the Americas.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a Coastline of Brazil of . It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the France overseas region of French Guiana; on the northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay. Numerous archipelagos form part of Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and occupies 47 percent of the continent of South America.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500, who claimed the area for Portugal. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese Empire was Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil after French forces led by Emperor Napoleon invaded Portugal. In 1815, it was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Its Brazilian Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The country became a presidential republic in 1889, when a military ''coup d'état'' Proclamation of the Republic (Brazil), although the bicameral legislature, now called National Congress of Brazil, dates back to the ratification of the first constitution in 1824. An Authoritarianism Brazilian military dictatorship had led the nation 1964 Brazilian coup d'état until 1985. Brazil's current Constitution of Brazil, formulated in 1988, defines it as a federal republic.The Federation is composed of the union of the Federal District (Brazil), the 26 States of Brazil, and the 5,564 Municipalities of Brazil.

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