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Norway

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Norway (; Norwegian language: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Scandinavian Unitary state constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island.) of Norway but is not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of and a population of a little above 5 million.It is the 2nd List of countries and dependencies by population density country in Europe. The country shares a long eastern border with Sweden (List of countries and territories by land borders or 1,006 mi long), which is the longest uninterrupted border within both Scandinavia & Europe at large. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, and the Skagerrak to the south, with Denmark on the other side. It shares maritime borders with Russia by the Barents Sea; Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and Iceland by the Norwegian Sea; and Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom by the North Sea. Norway's extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, is laced with fjords, a renowned part of its landscape. The capital city Oslo is the largest in the nation, with a population of 630,000. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, fresh water, and hydropower.

Two centuries of Viking raids to southern and western areas tapered off following the adoption of Christianization of Scandinavia in AD 994. Norway expanded its control overseas to parts of Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, and Greenland. Norwegian power peaked in 1265, but competition from the Hanseatic League and the spread of the Black Death weakened the country. In 1380, Norway was absorbed into a Denmark-Norway that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and Norwegian Constituent Assembly a Constitution of Norway. Swedish-Norwegian War (1814) but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the Union between Sweden and Norway under a King of Sweden. Later Norway demanded independence, which it gained in a Norwegian union dissolution referendum, 1905. Norway remained neutral in World War I. Despite its declaration of neutrality in World War II, Norway was Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany for 5 years by forces of Nazi Germany. In 1949 it abandoned neutrality, becoming a founding member of NATO. Discovery of oil in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The country maintains a welfare model with universal health care, subsidised higher education, and a comprehensive social security system.

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